Middlesex County Public Health Profile Report
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Hospitalizations & ED Visits: Emergency Department Visits per 10,000 Population, 2020
Middlesex9.26 95% Confidence IntervalNADescription of the Confidence IntervalThe confidence interval indicates the range of probable true values for the level of risk in the community.
A value of "NA" (Not Available) will appear if the confidence interval was not published with the NJSHAD indicator data for this measure.
State13.65 U.S. NANA=Data not available.
Middlesex Compared to State
Description of Gauge
Description of the GaugeThis graphic is based on the county data to the left. It compares the county value of this indicator to the state overall value.
The county value is considered statistically significantly different from the state value if the state value is outside the range of the county's 95% confidence interval. If the county's data or 95% confidence interval information is not available, a blank gauge image will be displayed with the message, "missing information."NOTE: The labels used on the gauge graphic are meant to describe the county's status in plain language. The placement of the gauge needle is based solely on the statistical difference between the county and state values. When selecting priority health issues to work on, a county should take into account additional factors such as how much improvement could be made, the U.S. value, the statistical stability of the county number, the severity of the health condition, and whether the difference is clinically significant.
- Excellent = The county's value on this indicator is BETTER than the state value, and the difference IS statistically significant.
- Watch = The county's value is BETTER than state value, but the difference IS NOT statistically significant.
- Improvement Needed = The county's value on this indicator is WORSE than the state value, but the difference IS NOT statistically significant.
- Reason for Concern = The county's value on this indicator is WORSE than the state value, and the difference IS statistically significant.
Why Is This Important?Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes obstructed airflow from the lungs. Symptoms include breathing difficulty, cough, mucus (sputum) production and wheezing. COPD is caused by long-term exposure to irritating gases or particulate matter, most often from cigarette smoke. People with COPD are at increased risk of developing heart disease, lung cancer and a variety of other conditions. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the two most common conditions that contribute to COPD. Chronic bronchitis is inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs. It's characterized by daily cough and mucus (sputum) production. Emphysema is a condition in which the alveoli at the end of the smallest air passages (bronchioles) of the lungs are destroyed as a result of damaging exposure to cigarette smoke and other irritating gases and particulate matter. Chronic lower respiratory disease, primarily COPD, was the fourth leading cause of death in the United States in 2019. Over eleven million Americans are believed to have been diagnosed with COPD.
How Are We Doing?Since 2017, the inpatient hospitalization rate has shown a steady decrease. Inpatient hospitalization rates for COPD do not represent the total burden of the illness. Most cases of COPD are managed without hospitalization. Individuals with COPD prevent hospitalization through avoidance of triggers and medical management. In addition, many people with COPD are treated in emergency departments and are not included in inpatient hospitalization statistics. Hospitalization rates measure a severe outcome of this disease. COPD inpatient hospitalization and emergency department (ED) visit rates vary widely among New Jersey counties. Rates for inpatient hospitalizations are highest in Cape May and Cumberland Counties. Rates for emergency department visits are highest in Atlantic and Cumberland Counties. Disparities in inpatient hospitalization and emergency department visit rates likely reflect differences in: smoking; access to effective medical management; co-existing chronic diseases; and environmental or occupational triggers.
Health Care System Factors:
- Unhealthful Days from Carbon Monoxide, PM-10, Lead, Sulfur Dioxide, and Nitrogen Dioxide
- Cigarette Smoking Among Adults
Health Status Outcomes:
NoteIncidence rates per 10,000 population are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population (18 age groups: <5, 5-9, ... , 80-84, 85+).
Data SourcesAmerican Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, [https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/] Office of Health Care Quality and Assessment, New Jersey Department of Health, [http://www.nj.gov/health/healthcarequality/]
Measure Description for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Hospitalizations & ED Visits
Definition: Number or rate of hospitalizations or emergency room visits due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a geographic area in a time period (primary diagnosis of COPD, defined by ICD-9 490-492, 493.2 (only when 490-492 or 496 is present), 496 or ICD-10 codes J40-44).
Numerator: Number of hospitalizations or emergency room visits due to COPD occurring among residents of a geographic area in a time period
Denominator: For rates, estimated population of a geographic area in a time period using mid-year population estimates.