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Complete Health Indicator Report of Preterm Births

Definition

Percent of live born infants born before 37 weeks (preterm) or before 32 weeks (very preterm) of gestation based on obstetric estimate Preterm is synonymous with premature. Infants born before 37 weeks of pregnancy are considered preterm and those born before 32 weeks of pregnancy are considered very preterm. Infants born at or after 37 weeks of pregnancy are called full term. Most pregnancies last around 40 weeks.

Numerator

Number of live born infants born before 37 weeks (preterm) or before 32 weeks (very preterm) of gestation based on obstetric estimate

Denominator

Number of live infants born to resident mothers

Data Interpretation Issues

The New Jersey Department of Health has been using the obstetric estimate (OE) to determine gestational age since 1989, while the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) had been calculating it using date of last menstrual period (LMP). In 2003, NCHS changed the standard for gestational period from the LMP-based gestational age to the OE-based gestational age. OE-based gestational age for U.S. data became available for years 2007 and later in February, 2016. Data in reports published prior to February, 2016 will not match data shown here. Refer to [http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_05.pdf Measuring Gestational Age in Vital Statistics Data: Transitioning to the Obstetric Estimate] for more information. [[br]][[br]] The annual number of birth records with unknown gestational age was between 5,100 and 6,700 in 2000-2009. Unknown gestational age dropped to 1,000-2,800 records per year in 2010-2014. In recent years, improved data exchange between states has resulted in fewer than 100 NJ resident birth records with unknown gestational age each year. A large number of "unknowns" in the denominator may artificially decrease rates.

Why Is This Important?

Prematurity increases the risk for infant morbidity and mortality. Infants born preterm are at greater risk of dying in the first month of life. Preterm infants may require intensive care at birth and are at higher risk of developmental disabilities and chronic illnesses throughout life. They are more likely to require special education services. Health care costs and length of hospital stay are higher for preterm infants. The more preterm an infant is born, the more severe the health problems are likely to be.

Healthy People Objective: Reduce preterm births

U.S. Target: [[br]]Preterm (<37 weeks): 11.4% [[br]]Very preterm (<32 weeks): 1.8%

How Are We Doing?

Preterm birth is highly correlated with plurality. While 7.8% of singletons are born preterm, more than half of twins and nearly all triplets are born prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation. For very preterm births, the rates are 1.1%, 10.8%, and 28.2%, respectively. New Jersey's overall preterm birth rate has decreased from 10.4% in 2006 to 9.5% in 2017-2019. The very preterm birth rate among all pluralities declined from 1.8% in 2006 to 1.5% in 2017-2019 and, among singletons, the rate declined from 1.4% in 2000 to 1.1% in 2019. The preterm birth rate among Black mothers (13.8%) remains significantly higher than among other racial/ethnic groups (8.3%-9.9%).

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

New Jersey's preterm and very preterm birth rates for singletons and for all pluralities are slightly below those of the nation as a whole.

What Is Being Done?

The [http://www.nj.gov/health/fhs/ Division of Family Health Services] in the New Jersey Department of Health administers programs to enhance the health, safety and well-being of families and communities in New Jersey. Several programs are aimed at improving birth outcomes.

Evidence-based Practices

[https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pretermcdc-activities.html CDC Preterm Birth Activities] [https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/mm6532a4.htm CDC Grand Rounds: Public Health Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth]


Related Indicators

Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:



Data Tables


Preterm Births by Year, New Jersey and the U.S., 2000-2019

US/NJYearPercentage of Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- ator
Record Count: 33
US200710.4%448,575
US200810.3%438,592
US200910.0%415,067
US201010.0%398,402
US20119.8%386,855
US20129.7%385,082
US20139.6%377,655
US20149.6%381,321
US20159.6%382,786
US20169.8%388,218
US201710.0%385,485
US201810.0%379,777
US201910.2%383,061
NJ20009.4%9.3%9.6%10,909
NJ20019.5%9.3%9.6%10,959
NJ20029.7%9.5%9.9%11,119
NJ20039.7%9.5%9.9%11,326
NJ200410.4%10.2%10.6%11,867
NJ200510.2%10.0%10.3%11,550
NJ200610.4%10.2%10.5%11,873
NJ200710.0%9.9%10.2%11,640
NJ200810.0%9.8%10.1%11,206
NJ20099.4%9.2%9.6%10,323
NJ20109.4%9.3%9.6%10,056
NJ20119.5%9.4%9.7%10,058
NJ20129.5%9.3%9.7%9,858
NJ20139.5%9.3%9.6%9,686
NJ20149.4%9.3%9.6%9,709
NJ20159.6%9.4%9.8%9,841
NJ20169.9%9.7%10.0%10,094
NJ20179.5%9.3%9.7%9,603
NJ20189.5%9.3%9.7%9,600
NJ20199.5%9.3%9.7%9,458

Data Notes

Gestational age groups based on the obstetric estimate (OE) are not available before 2007 for U.S. data. Confidence intervals are not available for U.S. data.

Data Sources

  • Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Natality public-use data. CDC WONDER On-line Database accessed at [http://wonder.cdc.gov/natality.html]


Preterm Births among Singletons, by Year, New Jersey and the U.S., 2000-2019 (EPHT)

US/NJYearPercentage of Singleton BirthsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 33
US20078.5%
US20088.5%
US20098.2%
US20108.1%
US20118.0%
US20127.9%
US20137.8%
US20147.7%
US20157.8%
US20168.0%
US20178.1%
US20188.5%
US20198.5%
NJ20007.7%7.5%7.8%
NJ20017.6%7.5%7.8%
NJ20027.7%7.5%7.8%
NJ20037.7%7.5%7.8%
NJ20048.2%8.1%8.4%
NJ20058.1%7.9%8.2%
NJ20068.1%8.0%8.3%
NJ20078.0%7.8%8.1%
NJ20087.9%7.7%8.0%
NJ20097.4%7.2%7.5%
NJ20107.3%7.2%7.5%
NJ20117.3%7.2%7.5%
NJ20127.4%7.2%7.5%
NJ20137.3%7.1%7.4%
NJ20147.3%7.1%7.4%
NJ20157.6%7.5%7.8%
NJ20167.8%7.6%8.0%
NJ20177.6%7.4%7.7%
NJ20187.7%7.5%7.8%
NJ20197.8%7.6%8.0%

Data Notes

This is an Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) indicator. [[br]][[br]] Gestational age groups based on the obstetric estimate (OE) are not available before 2007 for U.S. data. Confidence intervals are not available for U.S. data.

Data Sources

  • Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Natality public-use data. CDC WONDER On-line Database accessed at [http://wonder.cdc.gov/natality.html]


Preterm Births by Mother's Race/Ethnicity, New Jersey, 2000-2019

Race/EthnicityYearPercentage of Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 80
White20008.2%8.0%8.4%5,10962,167
White20018.5%8.3%8.7%5,20061,239
White20028.9%8.6%9.1%5,28659,536
White20039.1%8.9%9.4%5,43559,603
White20049.8%9.6%10.1%5,59356,997
White20059.5%9.2%9.7%5,26155,629
White20069.7%9.4%10.0%5,28854,535
White20079.5%9.2%9.7%5,04953,419
White20089.4%9.2%9.7%4,80450,848
White20099.0%8.7%9.2%4,37848,837
White20108.6%8.3%8.8%4,23349,458
White20118.8%8.6%9.1%4,28948,701
White20128.9%8.7%9.2%4,17946,892
White20138.4%8.1%8.6%3,92346,863
White20148.5%8.2%8.7%3,96046,709
White20158.6%8.3%8.8%3,91145,654
White20168.7%8.4%9.0%3,93545,237
White20178.3%8.1%8.6%3,75545,006
White20188.2%8.0%8.5%3,68044,704
White20198.3%8.0%8.6%3,65044,044
Black200015.4%14.9%15.9%2,87718,706
Black200115.0%14.4%15.5%2,74118,331
Black200215.0%14.5%15.5%2,64517,635
Black200314.8%14.3%15.3%2,54817,238
Black200416.0%15.4%16.5%2,63416,491
Black200515.0%14.4%15.5%2,44316,336
Black200615.9%15.3%16.4%2,70117,012
Black200715.0%14.4%15.5%2,58917,295
Black200814.5%14.0%15.1%2,44416,816
Black200914.0%13.5%14.6%2,29816,402
Black201013.2%12.7%13.7%2,10515,945
Black201113.0%12.4%13.5%2,02115,586
Black201212.7%12.1%13.2%1,98615,692
Black201312.8%12.3%13.4%1,93015,064
Black201413.3%12.8%13.9%1,98314,864
Black201513.3%12.7%13.8%1,87914,169
Black201613.6%13.0%14.2%1,85213,642
Black201713.1%12.5%13.7%1,77413,537
Black201813.5%12.9%14.0%1,83513,643
Black201913.8%13.2%14.4%1,80313,043
Hispanic20009.5%9.2%10.0%2,10522,044
Hispanic20019.6%9.2%10.0%2,21923,151
Hispanic20029.6%9.2%9.9%2,31624,250
Hispanic20039.5%9.2%9.9%2,49126,124
Hispanic200410.0%9.6%10.4%2,68726,887
Hispanic200510.1%9.8%10.5%2,79427,534
Hispanic200610.1%9.7%10.4%2,88928,723
Hispanic200710.0%9.7%10.4%2,95329,513
Hispanic200810.1%9.8%10.5%2,91328,723
Hispanic20099.2%8.8%9.5%2,60928,413
Hispanic20109.3%8.9%9.6%2,58027,875
Hispanic20119.4%9.0%9.7%2,61527,958
Hispanic20129.2%8.9%9.6%2,53727,551
Hispanic20139.6%9.2%9.9%2,60727,199
Hispanic20149.5%9.2%9.9%2,58727,186
Hispanic20159.7%9.4%10.1%2,70427,756
Hispanic201610.3%10.0%10.7%2,88227,952
Hispanic20179.7%9.4%10.1%2,65227,212
Hispanic20189.8%9.5%10.2%2,68927,404
Hispanic20199.9%9.6%10.3%2,71727,395
Asian20007.9%7.3%8.5%7038,909
Asian20017.3%6.8%7.8%6839,370
Asian20028.1%7.6%8.7%7739,536
Asian20037.7%7.2%8.2%77210,031
Asian20048.6%8.1%9.2%86910,095
Asian20059.6%9.0%10.2%97810,172
Asian20068.6%8.0%9.1%90010,512
Asian20078.4%7.9%8.9%92210,969
Asian20088.2%7.7%8.7%92211,231
Asian20098.0%7.5%8.5%85810,743
Asian20108.3%7.8%8.8%96011,554
Asian20118.2%7.7%8.7%95411,690
Asian20128.0%7.5%8.5%96111,987
Asian20138.7%8.2%9.2%98111,286
Asian20148.0%7.5%8.5%92911,634
Asian20158.7%8.2%9.2%97611,235
Asian20169.0%8.5%9.5%1,07011,926
Asian20178.6%8.1%9.2%1,00511,643
Asian20188.9%8.4%9.5%1,01311,339
Asian20198.3%7.8%8.8%90210,910

Data Notes

Data for White, Black, and Asian do not include Hispanics. Hispanic ethnicity includes persons of any race.

Data Source

Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health


Preterm Births by Mother's Race/Ethnicity, New Jersey, 2019

Race/EthnicityPercentage of Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 6
White8.3%8.0%8.6%3,65044,044
Black13.8%13.2%14.4%1,80313,043
Hispanic9.9%9.6%10.3%2,71727,395
Asian8.3%7.8%8.8%90210,910
New Jersey9.5%9.3%9.7%9,45899,305
United States10.2%383,0613,747,540

Data Notes

Data for White, Black, and Asian do not include Hispanics. Hispanic ethnicity includes persons of any race. [[br]] Confidence limits are not available for US data.

Data Source

Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health


Preterm Births by Gestational Age, New Jersey, 2000-2019

Gestational Age (in weeks)YearPercentage of Live Births
Record Count: 80
<2820000.7%
<2820010.7%
<2820020.7%
<2820030.7%
<2820040.7%
<2820050.7%
<2820060.7%
<2820070.7%
<2820080.7%
<2820090.7%
<2820100.7%
<2820110.7%
<2820120.7%
<2820130.7%
<2820140.7%
<2820150.7%
<2820160.6%
<2820170.6%
<2820180.6%
<2820190.6%
28-3120001.0%
28-3120011.0%
28-3120021.0%
28-3120031.0%
28-3120041.0%
28-3120051.1%
28-3120061.0%
28-3120071.0%
28-3120081.0%
28-3120091.0%
28-3120101.0%
28-3120111.0%
28-3120121.0%
28-3120131.0%
28-3120141.0%
28-3120150.9%
28-3120160.9%
28-3120170.8%
28-3120180.9%
28-3120190.9%
32-3320001.2%
32-3320011.3%
32-3320021.3%
32-3320031.2%
32-3320041.3%
32-3320051.3%
32-3320061.4%
32-3320071.3%
32-3320081.3%
32-3320091.3%
32-3320101.2%
32-3320111.3%
32-3320121.2%
32-3320131.3%
32-3320141.2%
32-3320151.2%
32-3320161.2%
32-3320171.2%
32-3320181.1%
32-3320191.1%
34-3620006.5%
34-3620016.5%
34-3620026.7%
34-3620036.7%
34-3620047.3%
34-3620057.1%
34-3620067.2%
34-3620077.1%
34-3620087.0%
34-3620096.5%
34-3620106.5%
34-3620116.5%
34-3620126.6%
34-3620136.5%
34-3620146.6%
34-3620156.8%
34-3620167.1%
34-3620176.9%
34-3620186.9%
34-3620196.9%

Data Notes

Terminology: *Preterm = births before 37 weeks of gestation *Early preterm = births before 34 weeks of gestation *Very preterm(1) = births before 32 weeks (if "extremely preterm" is not examined separately) [[br]] *Extremely preterm = births before 28 weeks of gestation *Very preterm(2) = births between 28 and 31 weeks of gestation *Moderately preterm = births between 32 and 33 weeks of gestation *Late preterm = births between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation

Data Source

Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health


Preterm Births: Very Preterm by Plurality, New Jersey, 2000-2019 (EPHT)

PluralityYearPercentage of Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 40
Singleton20001.4%1.3%1.4%1,524110,999
Singleton20011.3%1.2%1.4%1,457111,110
Singleton20021.3%1.2%1.3%1,374109,690
Singleton20031.3%1.2%1.3%1,403111,683
Singleton20041.3%1.2%1.4%1,411109,242
Singleton20051.3%1.2%1.4%1,410108,750
Singleton20061.3%1.2%1.4%1,411109,416
Singleton20071.2%1.2%1.3%1,380110,594
Singleton20081.2%1.2%1.3%1,339107,299
Singleton20091.2%1.1%1.2%1,205104,508
Singleton20101.2%1.2%1.3%1,267101,715
Singleton20111.3%1.2%1.3%1,270100,443
Singleton20121.2%1.2%1.3%1,22199,122
Singleton20131.2%1.2%1.3%1,19297,700
Singleton20141.2%1.2%1.3%1,20098,364
Singleton20151.2%1.2%1.3%1,18998,030
Singleton20161.2%1.1%1.2%1,13598,472
Singleton20171.1%1.1%1.2%1,10797,407
Singleton20181.2%1.1%1.2%1,13497,614
Singleton20191.1%1.0%1.2%1,07596,006
All Births20001.8%1.7%1.8%2,030115,542
All Births20011.7%1.7%1.8%2,004115,769
All Births20021.7%1.6%1.8%1,944114,642
All Births20031.7%1.7%1.8%2,020116,823
All Births20041.7%1.7%1.8%1,983114,443
All Births20051.7%1.7%1.8%1,978113,652
All Births20061.8%1.7%1.8%2,033114,665
All Births20071.7%1.6%1.7%1,929115,920
All Births20081.7%1.6%1.8%1,930112,428
All Births20091.6%1.6%1.7%1,784109,543
All Births20101.7%1.6%1.7%1,774106,571
All Births20111.7%1.6%1.8%1,819105,474
All Births20121.7%1.6%1.8%1,768103,778
All Births20131.7%1.6%1.8%1,717102,326
All Births20141.6%1.6%1.7%1,680102,813
All Births20151.6%1.5%1.7%1,626102,200
All Births20161.6%1.5%1.6%1,590102,473
All Births20171.5%1.4%1.6%1,498101,159
All Births20181.5%1.4%1.6%1,516101,171
All Births20191.5%1.4%1.6%1,46099,305

Data Notes

Very preterm birth among singletons is an Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) indicator.

Data Source

Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health


Preterm Births by County of Residence, New Jersey, 2019

CountyPercentage of Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 23
Atlantic9.9%8.8%11.0%2792,829
Bergen9.3%8.7%9.9%8318,964
Burlington9.7%8.9%10.6%4304,426
Camden9.9%9.2%10.7%6026,060
Cape May9.5%7.6%11.9%73765
Cumberland11.8%10.4%13.4%2131,802
Essex11.1%10.5%11.7%1,0979,890
Gloucester10.8%9.7%12.0%3202,958
Hudson9.9%9.3%10.5%9859,959
Hunterdon9.5%7.8%11.5%951,001
Mercer9.2%8.4%10.2%3744,056
Middlesex9.0%8.4%9.6%7768,611
Monmouth9.0%8.3%9.8%5015,567
Morris7.7%7.0%8.5%3484,520
Ocean7.4%6.8%7.9%6649,011
Passaic11.2%10.4%12.0%7116,375
Salem13.3%10.9%16.2%89670
Somerset8.0%7.1%9.1%2493,097
Sussex8.1%6.7%9.9%961,180
Union9.5%8.8%10.2%6306,623
Warren10.1%8.3%12.2%95941
New Jersey9.5%9.3%9.7%9,45899,305
United States10.2%383,0613,747,540

Data Source

Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health


Preterm Births among Singletons, by County of Residence, New Jersey, 2019 (EPHT)

CountyPercentage of Singleton BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 23
Atlantic8.8%7.8%9.9%2412,742
Bergen7.3%6.7%7.8%6268,610
Burlington7.9%7.1%8.7%3354,264
Camden8.0%7.4%8.8%4695,842
Cape May7.7%6.0%10.0%57737
Cumberland10.1%8.7%11.6%1761,751
Essex9.3%8.7%9.9%8889,572
Gloucester8.6%7.6%9.8%2452,834
Hudson7.9%7.4%8.5%7609,621
Hunterdon7.5%6.0%9.4%73967
Mercer7.6%6.8%8.5%2983,918
Middlesex7.6%7.0%8.2%6318,346
Monmouth7.2%6.6%8.0%3885,365
Morris6.1%5.4%6.9%2674,373
Ocean5.9%5.4%6.4%5158,744
Passaic9.2%8.5%10.0%5666,152
Salem9.8%7.7%12.5%63640
Somerset6.9%6.0%7.9%2093,021
Sussex6.9%5.5%8.6%791,147
Union8.0%7.4%8.7%5206,461
Warren7.5%5.9%9.4%67899
New Jersey7.8%7.6%8.0%7,47396,006
United States8.5%306,6463,623,963

Data Notes

This is an Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) indicator.

Data Source

Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health


Preterm Births: Very Preterm Singletons by County of Residence, New Jersey, 2015-2019 (EPHT)

CountyPercentage of Live BirthsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 23
Atlantic1.6%1.4%1.9%
Bergen0.9%0.8%1.0%
Burlington1.1%1.0%1.3%
Camden1.5%1.4%1.6%
Cape May0.8%0.6%1.2%
Cumberland1.6%1.4%1.9%
Essex1.8%1.7%2.0%
Gloucester1.1%1.0%1.4%
Hudson1.1%1.0%1.2%
Hunterdon0.7%0.4%1.0%
Mercer1.3%1.2%1.5%
Middlesex1.1%1.0%1.2%
Monmouth0.9%0.8%1.0%
Morris0.8%0.7%1.0%
Ocean0.7%0.6%0.8%
Passaic1.2%1.1%1.3%
Salem1.3%1.0%1.8%
Somerset0.9%0.8%1.0%
Sussex0.8%0.6%1.1%
Union1.3%1.1%1.4%
Warren1.0%0.7%1.3%
New Jersey1.2%1.1%1.2%
United States1.2%

Data Notes

Very preterm birth among singletons is an Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) indicator.

Data Source

Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health

References and Community Resources

Measuring Gestational Age in Vital Statistics Data: Transitioning to the Obstetric Estimate: [http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_05.pdf] Preterm Birth: [https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pretermbirth.htm] National Center for Health Statistics Birthweight and Gestation Fast Stats: [https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/birthweight.htm]

Page Content Updated On 08/17/2021, Published on 08/17/2021
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